Nakayama was born on April 13, 1913 Yamagushi prefecture, Japan.
He began studying karate after he enrolled in Takushoku University in 1932 under supervision of Gichin Funakoshi.
In May 1949, Nakayama and colleagues helped establish the Japan Karate Association (JKA). Gichin Funakoshi was the formal head of the organization, with Nakayama appointed as Chief Instructor. (Master Funakoshi was not supportive of all of the changes that the JKA eventually made to his karate style.)
By 1951, Nakayama had been promoted to 3rd dan, and he held the rank of 5th dan by 1955.
In 1956, working with Teruyuki Okazaki, he restructured the Shotokan karate training program to follow both traditional karate and methods developed in modern sports science also he established Kata (form, pattern) and Kumite (sparing) as tournament disciplines and in 1961, Nakayama was promoted to 8th dan.
He formed the JKA instructor trainee program and was among the first to send instructors overseas and to encourage the development of karate as a sport along scientific lines.
Masatoshi Nakayama was the first master in Shotokan history to be awarded his 9th dan while still alive and he was awarded his 10th Dan after his death.
Some of Masatoshi Nakayama most famous students are:
Hirokazu Kanazawa, Keinosuke Enoeda, Teruyuki Okazaki, Takayuki Mikami, Shirō Asano
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Practical Karate :Defense against an unarmed assailant